Using Linux's Multiple Device admin tool (mdadm), we can put these drives together in any common RAID arrangement. I built my NAS with the Raspbian Buster Lite image, dated 2020-02-13. I just did some performance testing by uploading a 20GB file to the samba share. We use the OpenMediaVault software in this step-by-step guide. At this point, Samba is installed, you’ve created a directory on the RAIDset that Samba will use for the file share, you’ve edited the smb.conf file, ran smbpasswd for every user that’s listed in the smb.conf file, and tested your configuration with testparm. You can check the progress with the following command: which should give you output something like this, which shows you the status of the mirror sync: Once it’s done, instead of the above, you should see something similar to the following when you run the same command: pi@PI-0:~ $ cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] md0 : active raid1 sda[1] sdb[2] 3906885440 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] bitmap: 0/30 pages [0KB], 65536KB chunk. So why do you think it matters if your drives are USB or SATA attached? to all the different products I used to build my SATA RAID array: Wow. But I decided to go all out (well, at least within a < $100 budget) and buy three more Kingston SSDs to test them in the same RAID configurations: And it was a little surprising—since the Raspberry Pi's PCI Express 1x 2.0 lane only offers around 5 Gbps theoretical bandwidth, the maximum real-world throughput you could get no matter how many SSDs you add is around 330 MB/sec. Note the line with the [UU] at the end. On the surface, the networking functionality is unchanged: there’s still 802.11ac Wi-Fi, though an upgrade to Bluetooth 5.0, plus a wired gigabit Ethernet port. I had originally planned to use openmediavault to mirror the disks and create the network shares, but unfortunately it doesn’t support USB-connected disks. I just stuck to the pi user because I wanted to keep things simple to start. Sorry for the delay replying. Just - wow. Ron Nutter The game runs and runs well on it. Raspberry Pi NAS builds are exceptionally popular, and we’ve seen more than we can count over the years. and gave it a password that was different from the password that I use for logging in with the pi user. Really interesting article. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Thanks, Close. So, follow this article step by step to turn your Raspberry Pi into a NAS Server. In reply to Thank you for sharing your… by Gonzalo. This makes for an ENORMOUS improvement in the performance of both USB: With numbers like that, I thought it would be worthwhile to try building a little RAID1/mirrored home NAS around a Pi 4. In Windows, it should look something like this: In Ubuntu, you may have to enter smb:// before the address: When you try to open the NAS share, you should be prompted for a username and password. The default smb.conf file contains a number of examples, including one for a network share and one for a print share. Samba is a mature, stable, and very useful batch of software that makes it pretty easy to create simple network shares. I did a bunch of torture testing when I first set things up, and things recovered gracefully. I will do another post soon to discuss how to fix a mirror if there’s a disk failure or if you need to recover the array entirely due to a Pi failure. The performance of nextcloud was already quite good on my old pi 3b+, but with the pi 4 I can notice some improvements, like switching folders is quicker. The Raspberry Pi 4 is a big improvement over the RPI 3 on many fronts. Disappointed with the results I accepted the failure and moved to other projects. Thoughts on which you’d prefer? I am not so experienced with pi, but why didn't you consider OMV ? Otherwise, you will have to browse to it. After a bit of consideration, I decided to see if I could build one with a Raspberry Pi. In reply to Hi thank you for sharing… by Johan. Thanks for sharing your work and good luck! In some of my testing, I noticed what looked like queueing of network packets as the Pi had to move network traffic to the RAID array disks, and I'm guessing the Pi's SoC is just not built to pump through hundreds of MB of traffic indefinitely. In my case, it's already faster than the old Mac mini I have been using as a NAS for years, which has only USB 2.0 ports, limiting my file copies over the network to ~35 MB/sec! Now reboot your Pi, and once it comes back up, use cat/proc/mdstat and blkid to see if everything’s okay: Now that the disks are mirrored, it’s time to put a filesystem on them. It’s good to hear that there’s a way around it (and that you haven’t had any problems after setting them up). There’s so much neat stuff out there! This part’s pretty easy. SATA random IO speeds are way faster, so if you're using the Pi to serve up disk images for netboot, VMs, or even for small file sharing, it's going to be a lot faster even over a 1 Gbps port than the same drive through USB 3.0. Learn how your comment data is processed. The first card I tested after completing my initial review was the IO Crest 4-port SATA card pictured with my homegrown Pi NAS setup below: But it's been a long time testing, as I wanted to get a feel for how the Raspberry Pi handled a variety of storage situations, including single hard drives and SSD and RAID arrays built with mdadm. Would like to disagree with you about OpenMediaVault not supporting USB disks. The best I could get out of the old NAS was around 70Mbps. I found that I couldn’t get much more than what you’re seeing out of a regular 2.4GHz wireless connection. You can use USB hard drives with a little work. I use ext4, and I’m creating a filesystem on the RAIDset, NOT the physical disks, so the command is: This may also take a little while. You are now ready to do something not a lot of other people do – use a Raspberry Pi to make a RAIDset out of a pair of USB-connected disks. Amazing work! Did you look at the energy consumption of your setup? So for each of my devices (sda through sdd), I ran fdisk to create one primary partition: There are ways you can script fdisk to apply a given layout to multiple drives at the same time, but with just four drives, it's quick enough to go into fdisk, then press n, then press 'enter' for each of the defaults, then w to write it, and q to quit. Storage, which as we have said can be USB disks, pen drives, etc. You probably get better efficiency if you use something like LVM and share a logical volume (rather than a file). I upgraded my Raspberry Pi 2 NAS to the latest and greatest Raspberry Pi 3B+ hoping to get the network performance boost promised by an excellent iperf benchmark. The post mdadm: device or resource busy had the solution—disable udev when creating the volume, for example: You may also want to watch the progress and status of your RAID array while it is being initialized or at any given time, and there are two things you should monitor: And if all else fails, resort to Google :). For my board, I’m currently eying the JMB582 or JMB585 which are pci to 2 or 5 port SATA chips, respectively. Technically it's not required to partition before creating the array... but there are a couple small reasons it seems safer that way. The PI is connected to my workstation and mac via gigabit and has a 250GB Crucial MX500 SSD attached via an USB 3 adapter. Programming Perfection! Is it the 1GB, 4GB or 8GB version. You can setup the drives with a little bit of command line work that I have documented on my YouTube channel. All you have to do is initiate the raid via command line as above. Its Raspberry Pi-specific version can be configured and managed via a Web interface to run well on Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi 4’s new USB 3.0 ports offer a massive bandwidth boost, which has a big impact on the performance of external storage devices. What about a power switch and display / indicator for status? Raspberry Pi OS (and indeed, any OS optimized for the Pi currently, like Ubuntu Server for Pi) doesn't include all the standard drivers and kernel modules you might be used to having available on a typical Linux distribution. …and the password will be whatever you set it to with smbpasswd. You should be able to use it on Raspberry Pi 3, 3 B+ and other variants as well but please check the official project websites for the exact details. Well, I'm also testing some PCI multi-port switches with the Pi—follow that issue for progress.). SunFounder Raspberry Pi NAS kit keeps the board at comfortable 53℃ Fans are PWM controlled and sit at 25% for the most of the time. If you’re here, that means you have successfully set up your Raspberry Pi, can see it on the network, and have two hard disks connected via USB. If you don’t get that message, go back through the file and make sure everything is spelled properly, etc. Your email address will not be published. Another thing is that I have focused on the latest Raspberry 4 but this should not be considered a list of Raspberry Pi 4 OS. So more RAM would definitely help make for more consistent transfers, but I don't think that's the only bottleneck, as copies would still start showing slowdowns after only 1-2 GB sometimes, even after a fresh reboot. It’s not noisy, but you can hear a characteristic whine from the modulated signal. But a 5 port compact SATA SSD NAS would also be interesting. Such as Orange Pi, Raspberry Pi, Rockchip 3328, Qualcomm Snapdragon 410, and so on. - The (roughly) 5Gbits of PCIe are always going to be bottlenecked by the 1Gbit of Ethernet. The username will be: localhost\USERNAME, which in my case waslocalhost\pi. I already have prepared a NAS with my raspi 4, and I was wondering what power supply are you using for feeding 4 x WD HDD. With a Raspberry Pi NAS Server, you can easily store anything from movies to games in virtual storage and access it from any device and anywhere in the world. Did you find any solution to what you suspect is linux flushing to disk and starving the nic of io bandwidth, continuously tanking the network transfer speed? The Raspberry Pi, on the other hand, is such a versatile little board that it can act as a cheap trial NAS that—once you grow out of it—can be repurposed for something else. This one is the 4GB version, and running free -h during the benchmarking shows the Pi is filling up its RAM with filesystem cache data. This part’s pretty easy too. I bought this model because it is pretty average in terms of performance, but mostly because it was cheap to buy four of them! Works super well and saves time. We'll then look at whether that improves performance for I/O intensive tasks such as pulling a Docker image down from the public registry.. Oh, and if you are going to create a RAIDset with more than one disk, make sure they’re all the same size, otherwise the mirror will only be as large as the smallest of the disks that are part of the RAIDset! You may also want to use particular partitions instead of entire disks like I did. Connected through USB 3.0, a SATA SSD is no slouch, but if you want the best possible performance on the Pi, using direct NVMe or SATA SSD storage is the best option. You should at this point already have a cable connecting your Pi to your router or a switch. As for performance… this setup is much more responsive and can transfer files to and from the disks much faster than the old NAS. Table 3. Have you been able to test different SATA chipsets? And the SATA kernel modules are not included by default, which means the first step in using a PCIe card like the IO Crest (which has a Marvell 9215 chip—which is supported in the kernel) is to compile (or cross-compile, in my case) the kernel with CONFIG_ATA and CONFIG_SATA_AHCI enabled. If you are planning to set up a NAS with Raspberry pi 4 it is a great option at this point. In reply to You only have one PCIe lane… by Markocloud. To make a Raspberry Pi NAS Box, you have to prepare these parts: Raspberry Pi 4 (the best choice). Even if you only have one router and one DNS server, you still need to type static routers and static domain_name_servers with the “s”. TechBytes with Ron Nutter. Fortunately, the software (like the hardware) has made leaps and bounds since the last time I tried it and it’s pretty easy to set up. One question I do have is if a PCIe X1 riser card would work on this? Open your file or network browser and browse to the static IP address you set way back in Part 4. The BCM2711B0 in the Raspberry Pi 4 has four CPU cores and has a clock speed of 1.5 GHz, which at first blush doesn’t seem much quicker than the quad-core, 1.4-GHz BCM2837B0 in the Raspberry Pi 3B+. How you will access it depends on the operating system on the computer you want to access it with. It will ask for a password, and that password really, really should really be different than the password that’s used by the user to log into the Pi itself! Raspberry Pi 4 Network Read/Write Tests. Raspberry Pi 4-Based NAS Using USB-Connected Disks Our little DNS-323 has been rock solid for the last decade but it’s getting long in the tooth and it’s just pokey … Mine’s low when coping files the it arround 6.5 Mb/s? I’ve been wondering about using Pi for a Raid1 with 1 or 2 TB SSDs for storing high value data backups. Once I switched to the 5GHz band, I was seeing around 70Mbps or so, but when connected to the switch with a cable I got much better numbers. In reply to No link for the RPI4? It’s time to restart Samba so it loads the new configuration: If you don’t get any messages or errors, things may actually be working! Using Samba is one of the simplest ways to build a Raspberry Pi NAS as it is easy to set up and configure. At this point, we have four independent disks, each with one partition spanning the whole volume. I have full directions for recompiling the kernel with SATA support on the Pi itself, too! Hi, Now that the RAIDset is built, you need to save its configuration so your Pi knows what to do with it when it boots: sudo -imdadm --detail --scan >> /etc/mdadm/mdadm.confexit. Make sure to use sudo so you’re editing it as the superuser. One such use of the newest Raspberry Pi 4 is to run a home or office-based NAS. Hi, I’m Mark. A Raspberry Pi, and it is recommended that it be a Raspberry Pi 4 for better performance, although from the 2B model it will already work. Or it… by Jason Harrison. I'm pretty sure this is also what I'm running into with my laptop usb drive raidz nas that's limited by the 1x pcie lanes to the pch. I set up a USB drive based NAS over a year ago and have had no problems with it. Even though Raspberry Pis older than the Pi 4 only have USB 2.0 ports, I wanted to check if they might support UASP, because as we'll see in a minute, just having UASP versus the older BOT protocol makes a large difference in performance, which would help even on older USB 2.0 ports. Here’s what I used: I went with mirroring two disks (RAID1), so that is what I’m going to go through here. The next NAS I build, I may give OMV another try. I linked to those in my initial Pi Compute Module 4 Review post. Using iSCSI (as opposed to NFS or SMB) can be much more efficient. Archived. I’m an engineering technologist by trade but a tinkerer at heart. For the first solution, we will be using a software called Samba to build a NAS with Raspberry Pi. The improved performance also makes the Raspberry Pi 4 the perfect candidate for a media centre, NAS, server, gaming emulator and many other resource-intensive applications. I ran into a few different issues when formatting different sets of disks. It’s an intermediate tutorial (not for noobs) and shows you how to create a Linux RAID array which is a good skill to have. Discussion. Here’s how mine turned out: I put the model on Thingiverse, it’s at https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4235287. The Pi acting as a NAS. But I would definitely like someone to design a nice case that holds the Pi, a specialized (smaller) IO board, a PCIe SATA adapter, a fan, and four SATA drives—ideally designed in a nice, compact form factor! 0 7 70. In my case, I didn’t care about the partition size so I used the entirety of both disks with the following command: -- create : Make a new RAIDset-- verbose : Show what’s going on while the command is running/dev/md0 : The name of the RAID device you’re creating--level=mirror : Create a mirror (RAID1)-- raid-devices=2 : How many disks will be used/dev/sda /dev/sdb : The names of the disks that will be used. Thanks to its modular structure, the range of functions can be extended at any time through plugins. How much ram does the Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4 have? It may already be installed, but just to be on the safe side: sudo apt install sambasudo apt install samba-common-bin. Bottom line – a Pi 4 with two external USB3-connected hard drives makes a serviceable and reasonably fast NAS for home or small business use, although there are security considerations that need to be addressed prior to using it out in the real world. Once it’s done, edit the /etc/fstab file so that the filesystem on the RAIDset will automount at boot. The Pi 4 is significantly better at handling website traffic than earlier Pi boards, with additional memory, about 2.5x the performance of the Raspberry 3 B+, and true Gigabit Ethernet. A Windows PC for certain configurations. Copy the default file: sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_OLD. Before we edit the file, though, we need to create the directory that Samba will use to share over the network: sudo mkdir /mnt/NAS_FILEsudo chown pi /mnt/NAS_FILEsudo chgrp users /mnt/NAS_FILE. Wir zeigen euch wie man so ein NAS aufbauen kann und wie sich der Raspberry Pi 4 B* im Vergleich zu seinem erst einem Jahr alten Vorgänger, dem Raspberry Pi 3 B+*, schlägt. I upgraded my NAS + webserver to a raspberry pi 4. Depending on the kind and size of disks you have and the type of enclosure, creating the mirror and syncing it up may take up to a day. Are you doing your testing over copper or over wifi? To set a static IP, use your favourite editor to edit the /etc/dhcpcd.conf file. If things are working properly, the physical enclosures and the disks will be present. Top of page. Note: The list is in no particular order of ranking. The results weren't promising, and has me thinking of using my Intel NUC instead since it has several USB 3 ports. How to do? In this part, I would like to guide you to DIY a NAS Box. Enhances the performance and efficiency of the system as well. So the “Share definitions” section in my smb.conf file looks like this: Notice how the “valid users” section has the name “pi” in it – you can change that to anyone you’d like (or have more than one user on that line), but for each user on that line, you’ll need to create an account on the Pi for them. Connect the USB disks to the Pi and turn them on. One thing you must have mentioned that a backup power, the files will be doomed if such thing happens. If you open your file or network browser, it may automatically show up. Besides this GitHub issue, I documented everything I learned in the video embedded below: The rest of this blog post will go through some of the details for setup, but I don't have the space in this post to compile all my learnings here—check out the linked issue and video for that!